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How Bangladesh separated from Pakistan?

How Bangladesh separated from Pakistan?

On 16th December 1971, Bangladesh was liberated from Pakistan and changed its name has been changed from East Pakistan to Bangladesh. However, the foundation of Bangladesh was announced earlier on 26 March 1971 by the Father of the nation of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who is called famous as Bangabandhu but it leads to a massive genocide in East Pakistan (Bangladesh) by the Pakistani army.

However, people supporting the separation of East Pakistan did not stop their protest against Pakistan and finally, it ended with the formation of Bangladesh.

India also gave its contribution to this separation and was the only country that helped Bangladesh to get its freedom from Pakistan. Here, we will discuss how India forced the 90,000 Pakistani armies to surrender in front of the Indian army.

History of East-Pakistan:

Before 1947, the Bangladesh region including some Indian regions was known as Northeastern India, which includes Odisha, Assam, Bihar, West Bengal, and today’s Bangladesh. In 1905, the British Government Lord Curson decided to separate the Bengal region into a two-part based on religious principle by applying divide and rule policy.

But this separation caused a massive protest in the Bengal region.
But After some time, both regions rejoined again but it had created some religious priority among people and triggered the Muslim communities to separate themself from India. As a result, in 1906, the Muslim League was founded and started to demand a separate region only for Muslims.

How Pakistan-East Pakistan ( Bangladesh) relation:

After the partition, in 1947, the East Bengal Muslim region was with Pakistan which was named East Pakistan in 1955.

But West Pakistan( Today’s Pakistan) never provided any authority and any kind of facility to the people of East Pakistan. West Pakistan was based on the Muslim majority but East Pakistan followed the path of secularism and it had every religion like Bengalis, Muslim, Hindus and some other religions.

Also, the dominating language of West Pakistan was Urdu and Punjabi but in East Pakistan, the dominating language was Bengali also their people were more educated and knowledgeable compare to West Pakistan.

On 23 June 1949, Awami League was formed in East Pakistan which fought for a long time to make Bengali an official language of East Pakistan and its leader was Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, who won the election in the whole of Pakistan and become the Prime Minister of it. But West Pakistan’s officials never accepted him as a Prime Minister, as a result, he was overthrown from that position and the state government of East Pakistan was dismissed also.

In 1962, General  Muhammad Ayub Khan materializes military rule in Pakistan to stop East Pakistani people from protesting but it caused serious damage in East Pakistan.
But, because of these protests in East Pakistan in 1969, Muhammad Ayub Khan was also dismissed and the Pakistan government got disbalance once again.

Announcement of Bangladesh in East Pakistan:

In 1971, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman fought for East Pakistan’s rights and won the election by winning 160 seats out of 162. But he was not allowed to form the government which triggers the insurrection in East Pakistan.

On 7 March 1971, he organized a mass meeting and mentioned the separation from West Pakistan. After that, the Pakistani government sent its soldier to East Pakistan and killed hundreds of people.
On 26 March 1971, Pakistani General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan operated a Seach Light operation in East Pakistan and arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

An organization was also formed in East Pakistan name Jamaat-e-Islami. This organization was supporting the West Pakistani government and killing those, protesting against West Pakistan. This results in a mass genocide in East Pakistan, at least 25 Lakh people were killed and 2 to 4 lakh women were raped by West Pakistani soldiers. That was the brutal army decision ever taken by any nation in History and this decision was taken just to suppress the protest against West Pakistan.

India role in East Pakistan:

After that, 10 lakh people flee to the West Bengal region of India but the frequent influx of refugees to India was causing a very big problem.
Mukti Bahini was formed in East Pakistan and drew up to fight with the Pakistani army but the problem was that they did not know how to fight.

At the time, India’s Prime Minister was Indira Gandhi who decided to give train Mukti Bahini to combat with the Pakistani army.
During that time, Pakistan attacked Airbases of India like Punjab Gujrat, Uttar Pradesh, and Kashmir when Indira Gandhi was in Kolkata. But India was prepared at the time and had only one aim, making the Pakistan army surrender. But the biggest crisis was that America was supporting Pakistan.  And according to the report that America had deployed of its warships at ports. But the best thing for India was that Russia was with hers which America has taken back its warships.

Surrender of Pakistan and Shimla Agreement:

The fight between India and East Pakistan was not going on for more days. India Lieutenant General Jacob was sent to the Pakistan AAK Niazi and asked him to surrender. And Niazi had surrendered in Dhaka with 90000 troops and they were arrested by the Indian government. But later all were released under the Shimla Agreement which was signed between Pakistani PM Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Indian PM Indira Gandhi.

:- Shimla Agreement has some major points following:
1. LOC was legally accepted by both nations.
2. India returned some occupied land to Pakistan.
3. Repatriation of 90000 soldiers.
4. Bilateral negotiation of Kashmir issue.

Freedom of Bangladesh:

Finally, On 16th December 1971, East Pakistan becomes Bangladesh and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman become the first PM of Bangladesh. There was an election in Bangladesh in 1973 and He again won the new constitution were made.


However, Pakistan never focused on Bangladesh and always tortured them. In 1970, East Pakistan was hit by a major natural disaster in the Bay of Bengal, but West Pakistan did not provide any relief facility.
Even West Pakistan banned Bengali culture and their music in East Pakistan.
Tough action was taken against Jamaat-e-Islami after the conversion of Bangladesh and they were arrested.

In 2010, the Bangladeshi government set up a tribunal to punish those who raped women and killed the Awami League supporters in Bangladesh.

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